In all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight. Prov.3;6 ב”ה
Chukat- Contact with Death and Facing God 5777
Bemidbar 19; 2“This is the statute (chukat) of the law (torah) which the Lord has commanded, saying, ‘Speak to the sons of Israel that they bring you an unblemished (tamim) red heifer in which is no defect and on which a yoke has never been placed. 3 You shall give it to Eleazar the Kohen, and it shall be brought outside the camp and be slaughtered in his presence. 4 Next Eleazar the Kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle some of its blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times.
5 Then the heifer shall be burned in his sight; its hide and its flesh and its blood, with its refuse, shall be burned. 6 The Kohen shall take cedar wood and hyssop and scarlet material and cast it into the midst of the burning heifer. 7 The Kohen shall then wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and afterward come into the camp, but the Kohen shall be unclean until evening. 8 The one who burns it shall also wash his clothes in water and bathe his body in water, and shall be unclean until evening. 9 Now a man who is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer and deposit them outside the camp in a clean place, and the congregation of the sons of Israel shall keep it as water to remove impurity; it is purification from sin.
10 The one who gathers the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; and it shall be a perpetual statute to the sons of Israel and to the alien who sojourns among them. 11 ‘The one who touches the corpse of any person shall be unclean for seven days. 12 That one shall purify himself from uncleanness with the water on the third day and on the seventh day, and then he will be clean; but if he does not purify himself on the third day and on the seventh day, he will not be clean. 13 Anyone who touches a corpse, the body of a man who has died, and does not purify himself, defiles the tabernacle of the Lord; and that person shall be cut off from Israel. Because the water for impurity was not sprinkled on him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is still on him.
Parshas Chukat takes its place in the series of parshas read during the bright summer months of Tammuz, time of Teshuvah, that teach us how to look at various different aspects of life in the correct perspective. Beha’alotcha taught about the purity of vision in general. Shelach Lecha taught about viewing the world — and our own selves — with the eyes of faith despite outward appearances. Korach taught about how we look at others who may be better than ourselves. Chukat comes to teach us how to look at our mortality, death, the end goal of life, in the right perspective — for with the right perspective, we can transcend death.
How terrifyingly fitting that as we are reading Parasha Chukat, this author have just experienced contact with death. I was permitted the great privilege to be present when my beloved Mirjam passed on to the next realm of her journey. I was enabled to say everything that needed to be said, to cry in her arms, even to ask her own advice about how to cope without her. I held her hand through the night into the dawn of her final hours and held on still when her heart beat its last. Truly, my perspective on “defilement” by a dead body has changed. I now see what an incredible humbling honor it is. I also see why one is not permitted to approach the Holy Temple while “tamay”. Not only is it the physical aspect of the stark difference between the indwelling presence of Hashem, the Shkinah in the Holy of Holies…I imagine someone drawing near would experience the most VITALITY a person could feel…the gigantic difference between this Eternal Reality (Ehyeh- I Will Be) and the other temporal reality death. The human form, the vessel for Godliness now emptied and immediately beginning it’s process of deterioration and reunion with the dust. Beyond this Physical reality is the spiritual and emotional element of contact with death.
Several points fall upon my heart. Going to the Temple to offer sacrifice is meant to be the utmost delight and pleasure. Whether one is there for the Olah- the act of pure worship, or if one is there to be drawn back near to God with the Chatah or Asham (sin or guilt) offering…there is such a spice of delight in restoration, how could someone who just experienced contact with the dead deign to function in said purity of worship or joy of restoration? One can’t, therefore he is kept separate from the Temple until the seven day period is accomplished. Furthermore, with the face to face encounter with death one is doubtlessly left to struggle (if one were being honest) at least in part…with God. With questions for God, about God…with doubts or concerns. With pain and anguish and still acceptance and thankfulness… such variance of emotion and thoughts… how can a person say that this encounter wouldn’t require ‘some time’ to be separate?
Yes, when we come into contact with death there comes with it a necessity to take some time to struggle with God and with man (the inner man no one else can see) and the hope lies in the eventual PREVAILING. Prevailing over despair, over rejection of faith, over depression, over shock and paralysis… the ashes of the Red Heifer provide the way to come close again to Hashem. Yet see…it takes ‘death’ in order to purify death. The one responsible for orchestrating this purification and rectification is himself rendered impure. This indeed is a great mystery: How to come close to Hashem again after contact with death. After the previous and next few parashiot nearly every single person in the Am, the people of Israel, will have come into contact with death. This is why we are given these laws at this point in the Torah.
#5060 (v) נָגַע naga – to touch, to touch the heart, to come, to strike, to injure, to be smitten, to be beaten, to reach, to attain to.
The first context of this Hebrew word for “contact” is found in reference to death. Look at what the serpent tells Chavah, “There is no death! You won’t die!” This is a lie mourners sometimes find themselves considering…it can’t really be true, are they really gone?
- B’reshit 3;2 The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; 3 but from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die.’” 4 The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die!
Each one of us knows the saying regarding death and afterwards, the arrival at the “pearly gates”. Another context for naga identifies for us just how special and sacred the Temple Mount is. No wonder there is such continued controversy surrounding it, no wonder the battles (seen and unseen) which rage in it’s regard. Ya’acov tells us what that place is…
- B’reshit 28:12 He had a dream, and behold, a ladder was set on the earth with its top reaching to heaven; and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 16 Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Surely the LORD is in this place, and I did not know it.”17 He was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.”
- Sh’mot 12:22 “You shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood which is in the basin, and apply some of the blood that is in the basin to the lintel and the two doorposts; and none of you shall go outside the door of his house until morning “For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come in to your houses to smite you. 24 “& you shall observe this event as an ordinance for you & your children forever.
In this context, the application of blood is a sign of trust in Hashem and His teachings. This sign of trust becomes the boundary by which the people find security and safety from the “angel of death” who was not permitted to enter their dwelling places. The dwelling places God said He would enter (pass over the threshold to come inside) with them to protect them.
This blood is applied by hyssop which is an element of the Parah Adumah sacrifice. We are meant to think of this “salvation from death” when the ashes are applied to the person who had come into contact with death. This is one way the Hyssop ties us to that offering and redemption from Egypt. To remember that we are ‘purchased’ by Hashem, by His sovereign choice and through His gracious will. It is a reminder that death is according to the judgment of God alone and He has told us through Yeshua (whose crucifixion like the Parah Adumah sacrifice was also outside the camp and contained elements of Passover and the Red Heifer- Cedar wood, hyssop, water and blood)…and because of the resurrection we know that death is not the end.
- Shmot 19:12 “You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, ‘Beware that you do not go up on the mountain or touch the border of it; whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death.
- Vayikra 11:8 ‘You shall not eat of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.
- Bemidbar 4:15 “When Aaron and his sons have finished covering the holy objects and all the furnishings of the sanctuary, when the camp is to set out, after that the sons of Kohath shall come to carry them, so that they will not touch the holy objects and die. These are the things in the tent of meeting which the sons of Kohath are to carry.
The previous 3 contexts of naga are reminding us of the lessons we have learned about boundaries. Healthy separation. Going through the proper chain of command with our woes and concerns. Being able to properly interpret our mission. Deferring to Hashem’s will and nullifying ourselves BEFORE Him. There are separations like at Sinai, like God gave as a standard for Holy people and every aspect of life including diet, like journeying and setting up camp. Recall our lesson concerning the devotion it took to follow the Cloud of Hashem whether the stay over in a certain encampment was for a year, a month, a week or a few days. The standard of preparation was the same. Are we able to understand that our bodies are the temporal tents which house our souls and are we willing to trust Hashem enough to pull up stakes when He lifts ‘the cloud’? Last lesson we discussed Korach, Just following the context of the furnishings of which Korach was granted the great honor to safeguard when journeying we find another occurrence of Naga, this time interference to Korach who assembled many in the congregation in a full out direct attack on Moshe/ on Hashem.
- Bemidbar 16:26 and he spoke to the congregation, saying, “Depart now from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing that belongs to them, or you will be swept away in all their sin.”
We know that the sons of Korach were able to keep this command regarding contact with the sins of their fathers which led to their descent, to their deaths.
אֲנַחְנוּ Anaknu nikra סֵ֫פֶר Sefer תְּהִלִּים Tehillim, פָּ֫רֶך Perek פּח Peh Chet
A Petition to Be Saved from Death. A Song. A Psalm of the sons of Korah….
1O LORD, the God of my salvation, I have cried out by day and in the night before You. 2 Let my prayer come before You; Incline Your ear to my cry! 3For my soul has had enough troubles, and my life has drawn near to Sheol. 4 I am reckoned among those who go down to the pit; I have become like a man without strength, 5 Forsaken among the dead, like the slain who lie in the grave, whom You remember no more, and they are cut off from Your hand. 6 You have put me in the lowest pit, In dark places, in the depths. 7 Your wrath has rested upon me, and You have afflicted me with all Your waves. Selah. 8 You have removed my acquaintances far from me; You have made me an object of loathing to them; I am shut up and cannot go out. 9My eye has wasted away because of affliction; I have called upon You every day, O LORD; I have spread out my hands to You. 10 Will You perform wonders for the dead? Will the departed spirits rise and praise You? Selah. 11 Will Your lovingkindness be declared in the grave, Your faithfulness in Abaddon? 2Will Your wonders be made known in the darkness? And Your righteousness in the land of forgetfulness? 13 But I, O LORD, have cried out to You for help, and in the morning my prayer comes before You. 14 O LORD, why do You reject my soul? Why do You hide Your face from me? 15 I was afflicted and about to die from my youth on; I suffer Your terrors; I am overcome.16Your burning anger has passed over me; Your terrors have destroyed me. 17They have surrounded me like water all day long; They have encompassed me altogether. 18You have removed lover and friend far from me; My acquaintances are in darkness.
The idea of adhering to this separation after touching death…of honoring God through our mourning illuminates an aspect of freedom. Like the people being liberated from Egypt were freed in a physical realm in order to uncover what true freedom is: service to an Eternal Master who Holds life and death in the ‘palm of His Hand’. The living human being, man, is the only creation who wields this ability. The ability to choose. To accept and adhere to God’s standards for Morality. The freedom to decide to serve and honor God and His Teachings. The capability to ‘hallow’ our own lives which He has granted us. We have the Torah as a constant and thorough guide for how to LIVE. This first and most basic truth may become ‘threatened’ when we are confronted with the fact that all men must die. The sight of or contact with a human corpse disturbs the superficial human intellect reminding us that man (as advanced and unique as he was created to be) is indeed subject to the ‘forces of nature’.
Coming into contact with death can cause a person to question eternity
and thus make him enter
into varying levels
of “spiritual despair”.
If death meant the “whole” man has died, that the body lying before us…overwhelmed by the compelling forces of nature represented all there is to man, then man…even during his lifetime, would be tempted to believe that he was no different than any other living thing. Then, the safeguarding of God’s will as defined by His Torah would become a “must” rather than a “thou shall”. Moral freedom would be an illusion. But because we have this freedom to choose to trust in God and to grow in faith and strength in our lives lived for His service out of a deep and abiding love…we are enabled to bring the free will offering of our dedication to the fire of the Sanctuary which gives light, warmth, life and happiness…loving God’s given moral laws which are testimonies which shape and purify man’s existence. “Oh how I love Your Torah…” for it does not ignore the areas in which we have no control such as with life and death and yet binds us through moral choice to a freedom only a ‘bondsman in Yeshua’ can verify, exercise & enjoy.
Romans 6;15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under Torah, but under grace? By no means! 16 Do you not know that when you offer yourselves as obedient slaves, you are slaves to the one you obey, whether you are slaves to sin leading to death, or to obedience leading to righteousness? 17 But thanks be to God that, though you once were slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed the form of teaching to which you were committed. 18You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness. 19 I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. Just as you used to offer the parts of your body in slavery to impurity and to escalating wickedness, so now offer them in slavery to righteousness leading to holiness.
Romans 7;12 So then, the Torah is holy,
and the commandment is holy, righteous, and good.
The seven day period of separation (the same period which is traditional to ‘sit shiva’ in Jewish mourning (Bereshit 23; 2 Sarah died in Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan; and Abraham went in to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her. 3 Then Abraham rose from before his dead….) is meant to be a time in which the person who has come into contact with the dead, confronts his own mortality yet continues to go through the process of letting go of the loved one’s physical tent and realizing his or her soul will continue on…on their plane of existence and
therefore the mourner must be able to return to the ‘land of the living’ as well- to continue on…on this plane. Life.
- Bereshit 3;19 By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, and to dust you shall return.”check verse return to the dust and land of the living.
- Kohelet 12; 7 then the dust will return to the earth as it was, and the spirit will return to God who gave it.
- Tehillim 27;13 I would have despaired unless I had believed that I would see the goodness of the LORD In the land of the living.
- Tehillim 118;17I will not die, but live, and tell of the works of the LORD. 18The LORD has disciplined me severely, But He has not given me over to death.
“Bemidbar 19;3…the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and sprinkle some of its blood toward the front of the tent of meeting seven times.”
Kohen looks toward the holy of holies….
We take the example of the Kohen, who had to look towards the Holy of Holies, because this is the ultimate goal of all creation, the place of complete unit, peace and perfection (Looking toward restored Yershalayim and the Holy Temple, Messiah and His Torah). Defilement from the dead is very depressing. In order to live we cannot occupy ourselves with death.
Like the priest breaking the most severe force of ‘judgment’ by gazing towards the Holy of Holies, we too, in order to keep living, must keep our gaze focussed on the Holy of Holies. The Holy of Holies in our lives should be our times of prayer and Torah study, and, in the family context, quality time with our dear ones and especially spouses. These are the best sources for comfort and healing when we are in mourning.
These will help us to come out
of our ‘separation’ and
return to the Land of the Living again.
In the Mishna, Tractate Parah, we learn that there have been a total of nine perfectly red cows burned:
1. By Moses;
2. By Ezra;
3. By Shimon Ha Tzaddik;
4. Also by Shimon Ha Tzaddik;
5. By Yochanan, the High Priest;
6. Also by Yochanan, the High Priest;
7. By Eliehoenai, the son of Ha-Kof.
8. By Hanamel, the Egyptian.
9. By Ishmael, son of Piabi.
10. Will be burned by Mashiach.
The relationship between the laws of the Parah Adumah and the coming of Mashiach is as follows: Exile is related to the concept of ritual defilement, coming in contact with spiritual death. For the exile came about through iniquities, the element of “You who cleave unto G-d your L-rd are all alive today” was lacking. The ashes of the Parah Adumah, offering purification from the defilement of death, allude to the time of Mashiach’s coming, the time of redemption from exile, when Jews sunder their bonds with spiritual death, for they then all cleave to G-d and are thus vitally alive.
* In Judaism it is taught that The Messiah will offer and apply the ashes of the Red Heifer…
A non-Jew once challenged Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai, saying: “All those things you do in connection with the Parah Adumah seem to me like witchcraft. You take hold of a cow, you burn it; then you take its ashes and place them in water, and after sprinkling them a number of times upon someone who has been defiled by a corpse, you declare that he is clean. Does that make sense?” “Has your body ever been invaded by a foul spirit?” asked Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai. “No.” “But have you ever seen anyone who was so affected?” “Yes.” “And what medical treatment was this man given?” “An aromatic root was placed under the man, and when water was sprinkled upon him the foul spirit fled.” “Then let your ears heed what your mouth speaks,” exclaimed the sage. “The very same thing applies to the Parah Adumah: the condition of ritual impurity is that foul spirit which affects a person who has been defiled by a corpse. Just as it is written, “And the impure spirit I will remove from the land” (Zecharya 13:2) – which means when the Mashiach comes, the spirit of impurity will disappear from the land – so too the sprinkling of the water in which ashes of the Parah Adumah have been mixed accomplishes the same purification.”
When Yeshua would touch a dead body (to perform a miracle of resurrection) it came to life.
When any other man touches a dead body he himself becomes tamay.
The color red is the color of blood and of life itself. #122 (adj) adom אָדֹם-red; ruddy.
The consummately red cow represents consummate, eternal life and procreation.
#6509 (v) Parah פָּרָה- to bear fruit, to bear young, to be fruitful, to be borne, to run.
B’reshit 1; 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”- Man is given this commandment but what will differentiate him from all other creatures is that he fulfills this commandment to procreate intentionally as a spiritual connection to Hashem versus a natural requirement of the flesh.
#6510 (fem.n ) Parah פָּרָה – a young cow, a heifer.
*this form found only in Ya’acov’s gift to Esav & repeatedly in the context of Phar’oh’s dream: B’reshit 41:2 from the Nile came up 7 cows, sleek & fat; & they grazed in the marsh grass.
#6499 (masc n) Par פַּר- bull, young bullock.
Bem.19;2‘Speak to the sons of Israel that they bring you an unblemished אֲדֻמָּ֜ה red heifer פָרָה
The 1st Commandment: P’ru arvu- be fruitful and multiply
and Parah come from the same shoresh.
Parah Adumah represents Eternal life, it is taken outside the camp (to the Mount of Olives)
- Hebrews 13; 12…that is why Yeshua suffered outside the city gate, to sanctify the people by His own blood. 13 Therefore let us go to Him outside the camp, bearing the disgrace He bore.
Parah Adumah is and completely burned- without being cut or broken.
- John 19; 33 But when they came to Yeshua and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs. 34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water flowed out. 35 The one who saw it has testified to this, and his testimony is true. He knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe. 36N ow these things happened so that the Scripture would be fulfilled: “Not one of His bones will be broken.”
Parah Adumah was never to bear a yoke- not forcibly moved or worked.
- John 10;17 The reason the Father loves Me is that I lay down My life in order to take it up again. 18 No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of My own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again.
Parah Adumah, through it’s death we are allowed access to the Holy Temple and relationship …drawing near to Hashem even for those who were once ‘defiled’ by death.
- 1 Corinthians 15; 50 Now I declare to you, brothers, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51 Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed— 52in an instant, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53 For the perishable must be clothed with the imperishable, and the mortal with immortality. 54When the perishable has been clothed with the imperishable and the mortal with immortality, then the saying that is written will come to pass: “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” 55 “Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?” 56The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is [exposed in] the Law.
Parah Adumah Ashes mixed with living water-
- John 7;37 Yeshua stood up and called out in a loud voice, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. 38 To the one who believes in Me, it is just as the Scripture has said: ‘Streams of living water’” will flow from within him.
Parah Adumah Ashes applied on the 3rd day and the seventh day-
- Matthew 12; 39 Yeshua replied, “A wicked and adulterous generation demands a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. 40 For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
- Luke 24; 1 But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came to the tomb bringing the spices which they had prepared. 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb, 3 but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.
“Truly, truly, I tell you, everyone who sins is a slave to sin. A slave is not a permanent member of the family, but a son belongs to it forever. So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed. John 8;34-36
Allowing for the release of captives imprisoned is like unto the merit of fulfilling the commandment of procreation. Saving a life. Counseling someone who wanted to take their own life. Giving to someone who was in dire need for food or sustenance. I pray this will be a blessing when I speak about having children and relating our lessons to family connection. Know that in your life you can fulfill this ideal without having a spouse or bearing children. Once a person begins to realize why he is here on this planet…he can begin to feel free.
Work in a life- save a life- create life!
Indeed we are the only creations who have the freedom to choose to live for Yeshua, to believe because of his resurrection that death is not the end, to choose to be revived and return to a life striving to interpret the mission properly, discerning between good and evil (through bitul- sifting and birur- nullification) accomplishing as we imitate his righteous ways…
His mission for our lives.
‘The positioning of the section of the Red Heifer here — as we move into the latter part of the book of Numbers and on towards the end of the Torah — is bound up with its thematic relationship with other sections of our parshah. The commandment of the Red Heifer, which comes to purify from defilement from contact with the dead, is followed immediately by the narrative of the death of Miriam. (“The death of Tzaddikim atones like the sacrifices” — Rashi on Numbers 20:1). The death of Miriam took place in the last year of wandering in the wilderness, on the 10th Nissan, exactly a year before the crossing of the Jordan and the entry into the Land. This is the first clue to dating the events in this parshah. The ensuing lack of water in the wilderness caused Moses and Aaron to strike the rock, leading to the decree that they would not enter the Land but die in the wilderness. Moses takes Aaron up Mount Hor to die, while Elazar, his son succeeds him as High Priest. We suddenly have to confront the loss of the elders and leaders of the generation. How do we deal with death? …As the Torah directs our eyes to the end goal of the wandering in the wilderness — entry into the Land to fulfill the Torah there — it first focuses our eyes upon the end goal of man, which is death: “This is the Torah: when a man dies.” (Numbers 19:14). For unless we come to terms with death, we cannot truly live.
Death is a fact, perhaps the main fact, of life. We are forced to confront it at some time or another. In order to come to terms with it, we have to learn how to look at it.’ Rabbi Greenbaum
1 Kings 4; 29 Now God gave Solomon wisdom and very great discernment and breadth of mind, like the sand that is on the seashore. 30 Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the sons of the east and all the wisdom of Egypt. 31For he was wiser than all men…
Shlomo ha’melech says in Kohelet (7:23), “I said, I will be wise; but it was far from me.”
“It is far from me,” the words “Vehi rechokah,” are numerically equivalent (441) to the words “parah adumah,” Red Heifer… whose many themes include eternal life & purification from death. What could be a bigger question to consider? Why does death tend to result in separation from Hashem for the living when the dead (had they given their lives to Him) will be closer to Him than ever before? How do we connect to God inside the pain?
The Problem =>
trying to understand that which you can’t understand.
Trying to get beyond myself =>
when problems arise
Back to the first great lie, recall…it was about death. “You won’t die!” Eating of the Tree of the Knowledge of good and evil, we’ll be like God, to Know what He knows, to Know Him. But who can really KNOW God? Do we put our own requirements upon God before we agree to adhere to His divine will, divine teaching, divine Torah? Will we seek first to understand before we act or act and believe that there will be a continued revelation as to His will? “Na’aseh v’nishma” — we will do and then we will understand.” Will we only trust and enjoy our faith when it is easy, when we don’t have to contact death? Will we turn away or, like the Kohen, face God in the Holy place, face the Temple?
May you be blessed and protected. May we all be comforted. Whatever we mourn may we soon rise from our time of separation and face God with a full heart, ready to be emptied as Yeshua was. May every single question in your walk become an exclamation point upon a growing and strengthening abiding faith.
This lesson is in beloved memory of Mirjam. You are missed and deeply admired. May your memory be a continued blessing. I love you without ceasing.
Resources: Much of this week’s lesson was learned from Rabbi Ginsburg http://www.inner.org/; Rabbi Shlomo Katz shlomokatz.com, Rabbi Ari Kahn arikahn.blogspot.co.il and Bill cloud http://billcloud.org/